Production of Hybrid Fuels

Fuels produced using microemulsification technology are called “hybrid Fuels”. They are called ionic or non-ionic depending on the type of surfactant present. For example, those hybrid fuels containing a basic nitrogen compound are termed ionic while those consisting only of plant oil, aqueous ethanol, and another alcohol, such as 1-butanol, are termed non-ionic or detergentless … Read More

Production of Methyl Ester

During the process of transesterification, an alcohol (such as methanol) reacts with the triglyceride oils contained in plant oils, animal fats or recycled greases to form fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerin. The reaction requires heat and a strong base catalyst such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. The simplified chemical reaction is shown … Read More

Plant Oil-Diesel Blends as Fuel

With the preponderance of evidence from numerous studies showing the unsuitability of using pure or straight plant oil for long-term use as diesel fuel substitute in unmodified modern CI engines, researchers have focused on using various blends of different plant oils with diesel fuel. There are basically two parameters that can be changed or adjusted: … Read More

Use of 100 Per Cent Plant Oil as Fuel

An excellent review of literature concerning the use of various kinds of plant oils as a replacement for diesel fuel was made by Jones and Peterson of the University of Idaho. Pryde (1982) also reviewed the results of a number of studies on the use of plant oils as a diesel substitute and reported that … Read More

Fuel-Related Characteristics of Plant Oils

There are a number of physical and chemical characteristics of plant oils that affect their suitability as fuels. These include the heating value, pour point, cloud point, flash point, iodine value, viscosity, density, and cetane number. The characteristics that directly affect the efficiency of the fuel and the performance of the engine are summarized in … Read More

What are Plant Oils?

The distinction between fat and oil is mainly a physical one. If the substance is solid at ambient temperature, it is called fat. If it is liquid, it is called oil. This distinction is merely for convenience since all oils solidify when the temperature is made low enough and all fats melt if the temperature … Read More