In the international market, some countries and regions in the United States, Europe and Asia have begun to establish commercial biodiesel production bases and widely use biodiesel as alternative fuels.
Austria is the first country in the world to esterify vegetable oils. Its annual production capacity is about 550,000 t/a. Its main market for biodiesel lies in agricultural and forestry facilities, as well as leisure yacht engines in lakes and rivers, in order to clean air and improve environmental protection. In 1982, Graz Institute of Organic Chemistry conducted the world’s first test on the esterification of rapeseed oil into diesel fuel. In 1983, recycled waste edible oil was used as raw material for biodiesel production. In 1985, the first demonstration plant of rapeseed oil methyl ester was established at Silberberg Agricultural College. In 1995, a patent for re-esterification was applied, and the conversion rate could reach 100%. In 1998, a plant was set up to produce biodiesel from 20% animal fat.
Brazil produces biodiesel mainly from soybeans, cottonseed, sunflower seeds, rapeseed, castor seed and palm. Waste oil from restaurants and home fried foods is also collected to extract biodiesel. At present, Brazil uses ethanol, biodiesel and other alternative energy sources, which account for 44% of its total energy consumption, much higher than the world average of 13.6%. Saint Cross State University of Brazil has also developed a new technology to produce automotive fuel from fried food residues. The university’s experimental plant recycles waste oil from restaurants in the city every week, 90% of which can be converted into fuel instead of diesel oil, and 10% of which can be used to produce glycerin for cosmetics. Oil.
The United States not only leads the world in the research of biodiesel production technology, but also leads the world in standards, tax relief and commercialized production. The annual total production capacity is 3 million tons. The main manufacturers are: World Energy Substitutes Company, Griffin Industrial Company, Columbus Food Company, Ag Environmental Products Company, etc. As early as 1983, American scientists used rapeseed oil methyl ester as an engine and burned it for 1000 hours. In 1999, U.S. President Clinton signed a special law on the development of biofuels, in which biodiesel is listed as one of the key clean energy sources. In May 2002, the Port of Southern California established the first dock capable of providing 100% biodiesel as marine fuel. In June 2002, a student at Madison University in Wisconsin, driving a biodiesel-powered locomotive, won the 2002 Ford Explorer competition. In 1999, only three major automobile transport companies used biodiesel. By March 2000, more than 40 companies used biodiesel, and more than 100 fleets in 2002. The main users are convoys of the federal government and utilities as well as bus and truck carriers with centralized gas stations.
In order to protect the environment, Germany advocates the use of biodiesel. At present, there are 8 biodiesel factories with more than 1000 biodiesel filling stations, most of which are located in the countryside where there are more diesel vehicles. Biodiesel production reached 2.5 million tons in 2000. There is no tax on biodiesel, and a standard for biodiesel has been formulated, which is basically a general standard within the European Union. Its largest biodiesel refinery in Schwarzheider, Brandenburg, Eastern Germany, has an annual production capacity of 1 million tons of biodiesel and 300,000 tons of glycerol. In addition, Saria has established a plant in Meiqian Prefecture, Eastern Germany to extract biodiesel from animal fat. It uses slaughtered animal fat as raw material to extract diesel for automotive engines, and can produce 1.3 xl07L biodiesel annually.
The Republic of Korea
In Korea, 80% of biodiesel is diesel and 20% is biofuel extracted from rice bran, recycled food oil and soybean oil. The oil is still in the experimental stage and is only used in cleaning trucks and garbage trucks. Biodiesel is being used in transporters of municipal refuse dumps, which saves 4.77 *106 L of diesel oil annually in Korea.
The annual output of biodiesel in Japan is 400,000 tons. The main raw material is recycled waste edible oil. The retail price of biodiesel is 80 yen/L, which is the same as ordinary diesel. The research and development of biodiesel in Japan began at the end of 1992. Researchers learned that soybean oil (soybean oil) produced biodiesel in Missouri, USA. In January 1993, they asked the Tokyo Office of Missouri for information on biodiesel. In June 1993, the biodiesel research and development department developed samples. In November 1993, they were approved by the Land Transport Bureau. It is used in diesel engine vehicles; a 259L/d industrial plant for biodiesel production from frying oil was built in 1999.
Before 1990, there was little research on biodiesel in China because of the self-sufficiency of crude oil. With the development of economy, crude oil has changed from net export to net import, and the price of petroleum products has been in line with international standards, which has led to the study of alternative energy sources. At present, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, rice bran oil, industrial lard, butter and wild plant Tung seed oil have been successfully used as raw materials in our country. After pre-esterification with methanol and re-esterification, the biodiesel produced can not only be used as alternative fuel directly, but also as an additive for clean combustion of diesel oil. The research institutes include China University of Science and Technology, Academy of Petroleum and Chemical Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, East China University of Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Fushun Changjiang Biodiesel Technology Application Research Institute, etc. In 2002, Sichuan Gushan Oil Chemistry Co., Ltd. has reached the annual production of 300,000 tons of biodiesel. It is planned to expand the production plant to produce 1 million tons of biodiesel in the near future. In September 2001, Hainan Zhenghe Bioenergy Co., Ltd., a private enterprise, built a biodiesel pilot plant with an annual output of nearly 100,000 tons. The main indicators meet the American biodiesel standards.
Italy is a country that produces and uses biodiesel widely, with an annual production capacity of 7.5 million tons and the largest 2.5 million t/a plant in the world. It is mainly used in air-conditioning heating and diesel power generation. Since 1991, biodiesel has been used on buses in 19 cities, running at 5.2 x l05km. The results are very good, especially with less black smoke.
France currently has an annual production capacity of more than 4 million tons, mainly used in diesel engines, part of which is used in diesel power plants, using the standard of adding 5% biodiesel to ordinary diesel. According to its agricultural policy, the farmland of 1.5 *l010m2 edible farm has been replaced by the farmland of producing industrial rapeseed, mainly biodiesel which produces rapeseed oil fatty acid methyl ester. ELF and TOTAL of France adopt a blend of 5% biodiesel (i.e. a blend of 5% biodiesel and 95% petrochemical diesel) and sell it to buses and trucks in 30 cities, which is in good condition. Its biodiesel production increased by three times in 1995. Citroen Group of France has also carried out a biodiesel test. Through the combustion test of 1 Xl05km, it is proved that biodiesel can be used in ordinary diesel engines.
In June 2011, a Royal Dutch Airlines Boeing 737 flew from Amsterdam to Paris with 171 passengers, making Dutch Airlines the first airline in the world to use biofuels for commercial flights. Since September, the Netherlands has launched biokerosene (commonly known as “gutter oil”) to fuel passenger flights from Amsterdam to Paris to reduce carbon emissions.
In July 2012, Royal Dutch Airlines Shanghai Green Ming Environmental Technology Co., Ltd. signed a strategic cooperation agreement. Green Ming will provide Royal Dutch Airlines with more than 10,000 tons of biodiesel No. 0 converted from waste oil, which will be converted into aviation biokerosene by Dutch technology for aircraft use.