The main raw materials of biodiesel are vegetable oil (rapeseed oil ,soybean oil ,peanut oil, corn oil ,cotton seed oil ,etc),animal oil(fish oil, lard oil, beef tallow, mutton fat,etc),wast oil or microbial oil. Biodiesel is a typical “green energy“,it has the characteristics of good environmental protection performance, good engine start-up performance, good fuel performance, wide source of raw materials and renewable.
At present,various countries all over the world choose different kinds of oil raw materials to produce biodiesel according to their national conditions.
Europe and North America have abundant cultivated land resources and highly developed agriculture. Therefore, European countries, especially Germany, have planted rapeseed on a large scale, used rapeseed oil as the raw material of biodiesel and established corresponding product standards.
In the United States, high yield transgenic soybeans are mainly used to develop the biodiesel industry based on soybean oil.
Southeast Asian countries belong to the tropical rainy climate or tropical monsoon climate, with high temperature and abundant rainfall all over the year.It’s very suitable for cultivating large-scale oil palm, palm oil has become the important raw material of biodiesel in these countries.
Brazil, the world’s largest producer of renewable energy, mainly use castor bean oil to produce biodiesel.
According to the current technology, the cost of raw materials accounts for 70-90% of the total cost of production when using vegetable oil and animal oil as the raw materials of biodiesel.Therefore, the raw oil material is the most important factor to determine the price of biodiesel.
It will be a huge challenge to meet the raw material requests of biodiesel industry for all the countries.The raw material composition of world biodiesel production is shown in figure 1, as per showed from the figure, rapeseed with high oil content has great potential to meet the requirements of the biodiesel industry.At present, the main raw material of biodiesel in the world is rapeseed oil, accounting for about 84%, secondly is sunflower seed oil, other raw materials accounts for a small proportion.